Introducción a la ciencia e ingeniería de los materiales. Volumen 2 by William D Callister at – ISBN – ISBN . Results 1 – 10 of 10 Introducción a la Ciencia e Ingeniería de los Materiales. Volumen 2 by William D. Callister and a great selection of related books, art and. Home CALLISTER II Ciencia e Ingeniería de los materiales. Una introducción materiales. Una introducción (vol.2): CALLISTER CALLISTER II. Published by .
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Design and construction of a machine for micro-abrasion-corrosion testing in simulated biological environments. Medicine and engineering have generated advances in reducing the adverse effects of biomaterials on the human body.
However, joint replacements remain a subject of interest since they present various failures stemming from wear processes and corrosion phenomena. Additionally, the growing demand for these devices by ever younger people and the increase in life expectancy generate the necessity of implants with a longer service life. To satisfy this need, all factors that influence joint replacement deterioration must be studied. This study therefore describes a method to design and manufacture equipment that performs simultaneous micro-abrasion and electrochemical tests on various materials in simulated biological fluids for the purpose of observing their behavior and viability as a biomaterial.
Despite the availability of analogous equipment abroad and the low investment in research in our country, Colombia, affordable technology which focuses on aspects of greatest relevance for stakeholders and may bring the greatest impact can indeed be developed.
Thus, with the implementation of design techniques, software tools such as Catia, and interdisciplinary knowledge, the conceptual and detailed design of the system and its later construction were achieved. The motivation of this study arises from the need to extend the service life of various devices used in orthopedic surgery, especially hip, knee, and shoulder joint replacements, among others. For example, total hip replacement or arthroplasty, despite among the oldest and most frequent procedures, present long-term drawbacks and an increasing number of necessary surgeries .
With growing demand from patients and a lengthening life expectancy, different fields of engineering and medicine are investing their efforts in researching, designing, developing, implementing, and adapting technological tools for improving the quality of life .
Biometerials research rules out the use of much of our conventional engineering materials, since the idea is to restore or replace one or more functions of human tissues in continuous or intermittent contact with bodily fluids. Generally, a biomaterial must have the following properties [6,7]:. From the point of view of engineering, a synovial joint presents behavior similar to a plain bearing, consisting as it does of layers of articular material cartilage arranged over bone tissue and forming a relatively hard bone structure in which the synovial fluid acts as a lubricant Figure 1 .
Such systems lead to various types of failure due primarily to frictional wear and corrosive phenomena, as shown in the diagram in Figure 2. Joint replacements, due to the interactions between the various parts in contact and to constant movement, generate wear mechanisms from the action of friction between the surfaces and the contaminant particles between them, causing anything from thin cracks to deep grooves .
The metal parts, on the other hand, suffer deterioration from corrosive processes as a result of the interaction of the material with the biological environment, which is an aqueous medium. The main drawback of corrosion is the release of metal ions into surrounding tissues which causes DNA damage, alterations associated with the etiology of cancer thus increasing the risk of local tumors, and the mechanical failure of the implant [7, 11].
As an example, a variety of hard coatings originally used on cutting tools are being used as biomaterials since they are bio-inert, bio-compatible, and have properties highly resistant to wear and corrosion.
Titanium nitrides are the best known among these. Others, however, such as titanium and niobium carbides, are already being implemented with very little study of their tribological properties . Furthermore, combinations of materials with varying properties have been used in order to diminish the harmful effects generated by prosthetic parts.
The most commonly used joint implants involve a combination of a metallic material and a polymer component, although this decreases the service life of the implant due to the high wear of polymeric materials . The analysis of wear and the corrosion phenomena in joint implant materials is thus indispensable, with the aim of estimating their performance and viability as a biomaterial.
Pin-on-Disk Tribometers are one conventional test that allows us to analyze wear in stable conditions . However, there are a large variety of tests to study wear resistance, and hence different studies have generated different machines for studying the effects of abrasion and adhesion on cxllister systems .
In light of the above, and considering the solid particles that accumulate in the body due to wear, there has been increasing interest in testing micro-abrasion, since this allows one to evaluate the frictional forces present between different contact surfaces as well as the effect of micro-particles, since abrasive particles in suspension enter the system [11, 22].
The purpose of this study then was the design vil construction of a machine for testing loe and micro-abrasion-corrosion, in order to assess the wear and corrosion of materials that can be viable in the field of orthopedic surgery, especially joint replacement. Using modern design tools, we carried out a systematic and voo process, with greatest emphasis on the requirements most important to stakeholders, such as test accuracy, geometry and size of the samples to be tested, and the modularity of the equipment.
The solution lies in the characterization of the wear and corrosion resistance properties of joint implant biomaterials. Lps do this, we proposed the construction of a machine capable of micro-abrasion tests materiiales a simulated biological environment. The test essentially consists of a ball that rotates a determined number of cycles over the surface to be evaluated with a normal load between the surfaces, under the influence of a flow of particles in suspension.
Contact and frictional forces between the ball and the sample generate wear tracks. Based on lls size, parameters such as loss of volume and constant wear can be calculated . Additionally, adding an electrochemical cell to the system allows us to monitor corrosive phenomena. In other words, two systems are implemented and can work together or separately Figure 3.
To attain the desired system, we used a problem solving methodology involving technical knowledge, CAD tools, and best practices for engineering product design . The first step was r define the problem – to describe the problem in detail, including objectives, restrictions, concepts, fundamentals, and needs, all in order to begin with the design process.
The second step was to compile information, identifying important documents from various sources such as handbooks, technical reports, and articles. In this step we also obtained valuable information from the stakeholders, or the future users of the system, such as members of the Loe research group, who have extensive expertise on the subject. For the next step, we col alternative solutions via the physical and functional decomposition of the system, and then evaluated alternatives with quantitative methods such as the objective tree and a cienxia decision matrix in order to obtain the best possible design alternative.
Later, armed with the previous results, the system was broken down into different modules based on the functions, outputs, and inputs of the different elements that make up each module. Finally, we used Catia V5 software tools to model the parts and assembly, as well as to make blueprints of the pieces that should be manufactured. Figure 4 illustrates the process used to satisfy the posed need. After obtaining our design alternative, we continued on to the production of the machine.
This phase was calljster into 3 stages, as seen in Figure 5. With our design goal in mind, we established the main variables for the design of the equipment. The variables are divided into subsystems as shown in Figure 6. The mechanical variables are given by the velocity and spin cycles of the ball, as well as the feed rate of the particles in suspension. To simulate conditions equivalent to the human body we use balanced solutions, either Ringer lactate or Hank’s solution, with particles in a specific concentration.
As for the study of corrosion, we use electrochemical techniques such as Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS. These make use of a potentiostat and an electrochemical cell comprised of a working electrode the material to be assessedan auxiliary electrode, and a reference electrode in contact with an electrolyte medium which in this case is the solution simulating the biological environment.
We continued our equipment design with a house of quality, better known as a QFD matrix. The diagram in Figure 7 shows the steps implemented based on stakeholder requirements. We then came up with the engineering features that have an impact on these requirements for the purpose of quantitatively and qualitatively ingenjeria a course to address the problem of design and pay more attention to the most important details that affect the system.
The requirements of stakeholders and the engineering parameters related to the QFD are shown in Table ingeniegia. The most important requirements for the end user of the product are the compatibility of the specimens size and shape and test modularity and reliability.
The most relevant engineering parameters in the design process were manufacturing, followed by material used in construction, then the sensor system and software technology for data acquisition. At this state of design we also identified technical difficulties, which lie in the adaptation of the actuators, the sensor system, and minimizing the number of parts, parameters that have a strong relationship with the modularity of the bank. Initially, we performed a physical decomposition of the system to be designed.
The total system was separated out into directly related subsystems. The result was a diagram that shows the connectivity of the elements, in which four subsystems can be seen Mechanics, Electronics, Electrochemistry, and Softwareeach important in achieving our objective of designing and developing the apparatus Figure 8. Starting from the proposed scheme we began modeling the system describing the flow of energy, matter, and information signals present in the system, using arrows and function blocks in a standardized design language .
In the beginning of the functional analysis, the inputs and outputs of the system as a whole were identified in order to build a black box diagram that describes the main function. Once the inputs and outputs were established, we created a list of subfunctions necessary to meet the design goal Figure 9. With sub-functions defined, we generated alternative solutions for each.
We obtained different design concepts with each that meet the design target proposed for future evaluation. For this design, three design concepts were created Table 2. Parameters and elements in common were established for the three design concepts. For all, rotational energy is to be provided by an electric motor with encoder controlled by Labview software interface.
Meanwhile, its power will be controlled by an Arduino system with an Ardumoto Shield that can handle up to two motors with PWM. The abrasive slurry will be mixed by a magnetic stirrer and transmitted by a peristaltic pump. Moreover, we proposed monitoring corrosive phenomena by coupling an electrochemical cell with the wear system. Consequently, the three concepts involve a tank with holes for the storage and leveling of the electrolyte, an electrode holder, and a potentiostat galvanostat.
In order to select the design with the best performance, an cencia method was used that cross-compares the design concepts – in this case a combination of an objective tree and a weighted decision matrix. To do this, the objective tree was first constructed Figure 10 taking modularity and cost as our selection criteria, then grouping underneath these concepts the other selection criteria, stipulating their respective weightings cisncia to the level of importance.
After weighting the objective tree, the weighted decision matrix was created. Here, the three design proposals were evaluated and contrasted, giving ratings of between 1 and 10, 1 being the worst and 10 the best Table 3.
According to the matrix, the comparison between the three design proposals suggests Design 3 as the best design, with a rating of 8. We therefore chose df 3 since it was determined to meet the selection criteria and can provide performance characteristics superior to the other concepts.
The schematic diagram of the machine was made based on its sub-functions and the physical decomposition made earlier.
Solucionario Ciencia E Ingenieria De Los Materiales 4 Edicion
Figure 11 shows the tasks performed by the devices in order to fulfill the main function of the machine, with their respective input and output streams that indicate how tasks interact directly and how different elements are grouped into modules to carry out micro-abrasion or micro-abrasion-corrosion testing Table 4. Catia V5 software, a 3D modeling tool, was used for the design of the machine’s mechanical pieces. It also allows one to work in different work environments to perform the assembly of the parts, engineering blueprints, and cinematic simulations of the different elements Figure To generate a versatile, robust and corrosion-resistant design, we decided to use anodized aluminum profiles ingenieri the base structure, joined with screws, nuts, and mounting brackets.
The rotational system of the machine is formed by a drive shaft and a stainless steel AISI support shaft. The ball performing the wear is placed between them. Because we are studying corrosive phenomena, the parts in contact with the balls were designed to be manufactured in EMPACK or Nylon 66, thus isolating the system.
The support shaft moves linearly with the purpose of changing the ball when necessary, which is why we employ a linear press with a ball bearing installed on top to house the drive shaft, giving it the cienvia to move manually when required. In order to adjust the contact force between the sample and the ball, a lever arm with counterweights was designed.
The counterweights can move freely over threaded shafts. Additionally, the lever arm can move between the vertical ee of the structure by adjusting the brackets that support the system, thus enabling the matefiales of arm height. The versatile design of the sample holder allows us to affix samples of any shape. To generate the simulated conditions, callistdr designed an acrylic tank within which the test is conducted. Both the support shaft and drive shaft pass through the middle of it, via ball bearings to reduce friction in the system.
To manufacture the apparatus, the process described in Figure 13 was carried out, taking into account the models and engineering blueprints developed in previous stages. Among the electronics used in the development of machine we first have mzteriales Hall effect encoder, which generates a leading edge and a trailing edge signal for measuring motor spin.
For every complete revolution of the motor shaft 16 pulses are released – translated to the rotations of the shaft of the reduction gearbox there are pulses per rotation. Third, we use an NI USB data acquisition card to count encoder pulses and communicate between the user interface and the machine.